Robert F. O'Toole, «How Does Luke Portray Jesus as Servant of YHWH», Vol. 81 (2000) 328-346
This article explains Luke's meaning of Jesus as Servant of YHWH and claims this title as part of Luke's christology. Many references to Jesus as Servant of YHWH are unique to Luke, and a few summarize Jesus' ministry. These summary passages particularly look to Jesus' saving activity, universal mission and suffering. Other Servant of YHWH passages point out that Jesus is specially chosen and pleasing to God and determined to do his will. In particular, Acts 8,32-33 summarize Jesus' passion during which Luke views Jesus as the Servant and thus humble, innocent and silent. As the Servant Jesus is also risen and active.
theme4? Furthermore, how many of these references are unique to Luke? Also, although some of Lukes references to Jesus as Servant of YHWH are obvious, others are subtler; and it must be demonstrated that each of these passages is probably such a reference. For instance, this last observation is relevant as regards what interpretation should be given to paradi/dwmi, I hand over, and a!gw, I lead, and the cognates of the latter. Do these verbs also serve Luke to picture Jesus as the Servant of YHWH? Moreover, what is Lukes word-pattern for his presentation of Jesus as the Servant of YHWH? According to the present interpretation, this pattern would have to include the following vocabulary, a!gw, e)klekto/j, elect, and cognates, pai=j, servant, paradi/dwmi, swthri/a, salvation, and fw=j e)qnw=n, light of the Gentiles. Nonetheless, our best approach to the question expressed in the title of this article is to begin with a study of those passages in which Luke most probably views Jesus as the Servant of YHWH or as acting as the Servant acted.
I. Luke Viewed Jesus Death as That of the Servant of YHWH5
Let us begin our consideration here with Acts 8,32-33 (cf. Isa 53,7-8 LXX)6 because that passage leaves no doubt that Luke uses this description of the Servant to summarize how he presents Jesus in his passion narrative7:
h( de_ perioxh_ th=j grafh=j h#n a)negi/nwsken h]n au#th: ÔWj pro/baton e)pi_ sfagh_n h!xqh kai_ w(j a)mno_j e)nanti/on tou= kei/rantoj au)to_n a!fwnoj, ou#twj ou)k a)noi/gei to_ sto/ma au)tou=. 'En th|= tapeinw/sei[au)tou=] h( kri/sij au)tou= h!rqh: th_n genea_n au)tou= ti/j dihgh/setai; o#ti ai!retai a)po_ th=j gh=j h( zwh_ au)tou=