Robert F. O'Toole, «How Does Luke Portray Jesus as Servant of YHWH», Vol. 81 (2000) 328-346
This article explains Luke's meaning of Jesus as Servant of YHWH and claims this title as part of Luke's christology. Many references to Jesus as Servant of YHWH are unique to Luke, and a few summarize Jesus' ministry. These summary passages particularly look to Jesus' saving activity, universal mission and suffering. Other Servant of YHWH passages point out that Jesus is specially chosen and pleasing to God and determined to do his will. In particular, Acts 8,32-33 summarize Jesus' passion during which Luke views Jesus as the Servant and thus humble, innocent and silent. As the Servant Jesus is also risen and active.
'En th| tapeinw/sei[au)tou=] h( kri/sij au)tou= h!rqh: th_n genea_n au)tou= ti/j dihgh/setai
i.e., Jesus did not get a fair trial. Furthermore, Isa 53,11 asserts that God will, justify the just one (di/kaion) who serves many well. Luke has definitely portrayed Jesus as innocent during the passion. Pilate says that he finds no guilt in Jesus (Luke 23,4) and in a threefold manner repeats this conviction when he reports that neither has Herod found any charge worthy of death in him (vv. 14-15). Pilate then again a third time states Jesus innocence (v. 22). The good thief also affirms that Jesus has done nothing amiss (v. 41). In more solemn fashion, the centurion glorifies God and asserts of Jesus, Truly this was a just man (v. 47) while the other Synoptics have Truly, this man was Son of God (cf. Mark 15,39; Matt 27,54); and if the beating of ones breast means an individual knows that he has participated in an evil action, we would have still another statement of Jesus innocence when the crowd leaves the crucifixion beating their breasts (cf. Luke 23,48).
The theme of Jesus innocence also appears in Acts. In his speech in Solomons Portico, Peter claims that his audience had demanded that a murderer be freed and denied the holy and just one (di/kaion) and so killed the author of life, even though Pilate had judged he should be freed (Acts 3,13-15). Subsequently, Stephen concludes his speech with the accusation that the members of his audience are the betrayers and murders of the just one (dikai/ou; cf. 7,52). These latter expressions are similar to the words of the centurion at the crucifixion who proclaimed Jesus innocence with the words jOntwj o( a!nqrwpoj ou|toj di/kaioj h]n (Luke 23,47). Finally, Paul at Antioch of Pisidia explains that the inhabitants of Jerusalem and their rulers, ignorant of the message of the prophets, even though they found no crime in Jesus worthy of death, still demanded his execution and so fulfilled what the scriptures said (13,27-29). This extensive theme of Jesus innocence is later matched by that of Paul in Acts11, and both portrayals relate to the Lukan presentation of Jesus as Servant of YHWH.
1. Acts 4,27
There is reason to think that Luke also intends to refer to Jesus as the Servant of YHWH in Acts 4,2712. It is true that 4,25 (cf. Luke 1,69)