Robert F. O'Toole, «How Does Luke Portray Jesus as Servant of YHWH», Vol. 81 (2000) 328-346
This article explains Luke's meaning of Jesus as Servant of YHWH and claims this title as part of Luke's christology. Many references to Jesus as Servant of YHWH are unique to Luke, and a few summarize Jesus' ministry. These summary passages particularly look to Jesus' saving activity, universal mission and suffering. Other Servant of YHWH passages point out that Jesus is specially chosen and pleasing to God and determined to do his will. In particular, Acts 8,32-33 summarize Jesus' passion during which Luke views Jesus as the Servant and thus humble, innocent and silent. As the Servant Jesus is also risen and active.
We are now ready to look at other data in or associated with the passion narrative, namely, paradi/dwmi and a!gw, I lead, and its cognates which support the argument that Luke in these scenes intends to present Jesus as the Servant of YHWH. M.D. Hooker in agreement with F. Jackson and K. Lake writes, It is hard to see what other word the writers could naturally have used. It seems far more likely that paradi/dwmi was used as the most natural word, though probably it afterwards did much to strengthen the Christian interpretation of Isaiah when the coincidence in language was noted14. Nevertheless, paradi/dwmi does appear to belong to the word-pattern of Lukes presentation of Jesus as Servant of YHWH15. This conclusion flows from Lukes own statement that he so views Jesus during the passion and from his portrayal of this conviction seen thus far, and from two passages from Isaiah:
pa/ntej w(j pro/bata e)planh/qhmen, a!nqrwpoj th|= o(dw|= au)tou= e)planh/qh: kai_ ku/rioj pare/dwken au)to_n tai=j a(marti/aij h(mw=n
We have all gone astray like sheep, each deceived in his own way; but the Lord handed him over for our sins (Isa 53,6);
dia_ tou=to au)to_j klhronomh/sei pollou_j kai_ tw=n i)sxurw=n meriei= sku=la, a)nq w|n paredo/qh ei)j qa/naton h( yuxh_ au)tou=, kai_ e)n toi=j a)no/moij e)logi/sqh: kai_ au)to_j a(marti/aj pollw=n a)nh/negken kai_ dia_ ta_j a)marti/aj au)tw=n paredo/qh
Therefore, he will inherit many people and divide the spoils of the powerful because he was handed over to death and counted among criminals. He bore the sins of many, and for their sins was handed over (Isa 53,12).
Of course, we have already seen that this last verse (where paradi/dwmi occurs twice) was applied only by Luke to Jesus in the sense that he was to be numbered with criminals (cf. Luke 22,37).
In fact, paradi/dwmi actually appears fairly often in reference to Jesus passion. According to the second passion prediction, the Son of Man is to be handed over into the hands of men (Luke 9,44); in the