Robert F. O'Toole, «How Does Luke Portray Jesus as Servant of YHWH», Vol. 81 (2000) 328-346
This article explains Luke's meaning of Jesus as Servant of YHWH and claims this title as part of Luke's christology. Many references to Jesus as Servant of YHWH are unique to Luke, and a few summarize Jesus' ministry. These summary passages particularly look to Jesus' saving activity, universal mission and suffering. Other Servant of YHWH passages point out that Jesus is specially chosen and pleasing to God and determined to do his will. In particular, Acts 8,32-33 summarize Jesus' passion during which Luke views Jesus as the Servant and thus humble, innocent and silent. As the Servant Jesus is also risen and active.
speak of David as paido/j sou your servant, and this fact would naturally lead one to conclude that pai=j is used two verses later of Jesus because he is Davids descendant. Moreover, v. 27 also says of Jesus o#n e!xrisaj (whom you anointed); and thus identifies him with the Christ of the Lord of v.26. However, the context (vv. 25-27; cf. Ps 2,1-2) also speaks of the opposition to the Lord and his Christ and so well agrees with Lukes use of the figure of the Servant of YHWH to explain Jesus passion.
Moreover, few authors doubt that in the previous chapter (Acts 3,13.26) Luke does write of Jesus as the Servant of YHWH; and we will see that in the programmatic passage (Luke 4,14-44), which parallels the thought of Acts 4,26-27, Jesus is most likely not to be seen only as a prophet but also as the Servant of YHWH and the Christ. So, Luke may well have joined these last two identifications of Jesus when he composed Acts 4,26-30 (cf. vv. 23-31).
Acts 3,13-15 support the above understanding of 8,32-33 (and of 4,27); for as we shall see below, the sentence, The God ... glorified his servant Jesus (3,13), looks to Isa 52,13 and to Jesus resurrection. First I note that immediately following this phrase in Acts 3,13-15a we find:
o#n u(mei=j me_n paredw/kate kai_ h)rnh/sasqe kata_ pro/swpon Pila/tou, kri/nantoj e)kei/nou a)polu/ein: u(mei=j de_ to_n a#gion kai_ di/kaion h)rnh/sasqe ... to_n de_ a)rxhgo_n th=j zwh=j a)pektei/nate
Whom you handed over and disowned in Pilates presence when Pilate was ready to release him; you rejected the Holy and Just One ... put to death the author of life.
These verses support this articles interpretation of Acts 8,32-33. There is the obvious reference to the Servant of YHWH hymn and the designation of Jesus as servant (cf. Isa 52,13). Moreover, we will contend below that paradi/dwmi, I hand over, belongs to the word-pattern of this title. Also the adjective, di/kaioj, just, appears in Isa 53,11 (dikaiw=sai di/kaion eu] douleu/onta polloi=j, to justify the just one who serves many well) and so in the context which speaks of the servants glorification. In addition, it was demonstrated above that di/kaioj is associated with Jesus innocence, another aspect of Jesus as Servant of YHWH theme. Since the contents of Acts 3,13-15 resembles that of 8,32-33, the former passage supports the interpretation that the latter provides a summary of Lukes portrayal of Jesus as Servant of YHWH during the passion13.