Robert F. O'Toole, «How Does Luke Portray Jesus as Servant of YHWH», Vol. 81 (2000) 328-346
This article explains Luke's meaning of Jesus as Servant of YHWH and claims this title as part of Luke's christology. Many references to Jesus as Servant of YHWH are unique to Luke, and a few summarize Jesus' ministry. These summary passages particularly look to Jesus' saving activity, universal mission and suffering. Other Servant of YHWH passages point out that Jesus is specially chosen and pleasing to God and determined to do his will. In particular, Acts 8,32-33 summarize Jesus' passion during which Luke views Jesus as the Servant and thus humble, innocent and silent. As the Servant Jesus is also risen and active.
carries the nuance of paradi/dwmi, which word actually occurs twice in two verses almost immediately following (Luke 22,21-22). It was Gods will (permissive) that Jesus be handed over to his suffering. Consequently, dido/menon would constitute part of Lukes portrayal of Jesus as the Servant of YHWH and make the additional point that Jesus himself accepted his Fathers will.
The only other passage in Luke-Acts where Jesus redemptive death occurs is Acts 20,28 when Paul in his farewell speech to the Ephesian elders speaks of Gods church redeemed through the blood of his own son. Apparently, Luke in Pauls farewell speech and in the traditional material of the Last Supper (Luke 22,19-20) was willing to take over these statements of vicarious suffering and redemptive death. However, we find no clear additional evidence that Luke wanted to integrate vicarious suffering or a redemptive death into his own christology.
3. !Agw and Its Cognates
!Agw and its cognates also very likely belong to the word-pattern of Lukes portrayal of Jesus as Servant of YHWH. In Acts 8,32 (cf. Isa 53,7), Jesus is led as a lamb to the slaughter; and although not cited in its entirety in Acts 8,33, Isa 53,8 concludes with the words:
o#ti ai!retai a)po_ th=j gh=j h( zwh_ au)tou=, a)po_ tw=n a)nomiw=n tou= laou= mou h!xqh ei)j qa/naton
Because his life was taken from earth and he was led to death for the iniquities of my people.
Naturally, one could again bring up the consideration of M.D. Hooker and ask what other word would Luke have been able to use, and our response would have to be much like the one given for paradi/dwmi. In fact, during the passion, Jesus captors led him into the house of the high priest (Luke 22,54, ei)sa/gw) and later before the Sanhedrin (v. 66, a)pa/gw). Then the whole crowd leads him before Pilate (23,1), and finally they led him away to crucify him (23,26, a)pa/gw). These