Robert F. O'Toole, «How Does Luke Portray Jesus as Servant of YHWH», Vol. 81 (2000) 328-346
This article explains Luke's meaning of Jesus as Servant of YHWH and claims this title as part of Luke's christology. Many references to Jesus as Servant of YHWH are unique to Luke, and a few summarize Jesus' ministry. These summary passages particularly look to Jesus' saving activity, universal mission and suffering. Other Servant of YHWH passages point out that Jesus is specially chosen and pleasing to God and determined to do his will. In particular, Acts 8,32-33 summarize Jesus' passion during which Luke views Jesus as the Servant and thus humble, innocent and silent. As the Servant Jesus is also risen and active.
It is written in Scripture, He was counted among the wicked, and this I tell you, must come to be fulfilled in me; all that is (written) about me has its fulfillment (Luke 22,37; cf. Isa 53,12)
will come to pass in his regard. Again we have a reference to the Servant passages, Isa 53; and the citation, dei= and the predicted fulfillment (telesqh=nai, te/loj e!xei) all point to Jesus being associated with criminals as being Gods will. Later in the garden this association is confirmed; for Jesus says to the high priests, elders and temple soldiers that they came out armed with swords and clubs as against a thief: (Wj e)pi_ lh|sth_n e)ch/lqate (Luke 22,52). Actually, Jesus is crucified with two criminals (23,32-33; cf. vv. 39-43)9. The officials mockery, noted above, includes the designation of Jesus as o( e)klekto/j (23,35, the chosen one; cf. Isa 42,1) and marks the second Servant of YHWH reference during the passion. A further reference to Jesus as the Servant of YHWH lies in Jesus not answering a word to Herods questions (Luke 23,9; cf. Acts 8,32; Isa 53,7). So, Jesus being numbered among criminals surely was a fact; but it stands in stark contrast to his personal comportment.
A final reference to Jesus as the Servant of YHWH occurs a number of times during Lukes passion narrative. A number of scholars contend that Luke presents Jesus passion as the martyrdom of a just man10. This statement is true, but is the more generic identification of a literary form. Luke is more specific than this. His own explanation of what he has done occurs in Acts 8,32-35 and is particularly evident in his many declarations of Jesus innocence which should be connected with the Lukan portrayal of him as Servant of YHWH. Isa 53,9 reads of the servant:
o#ti a)nomi/an ou)k e)poi/hsen, ou)de_ eu(re/qh do/loj e)n tw|= sto/mati au)tou=(cf. Isa 50,9: yn(y#$ry )wh-ym yl-rz(y hwhy ynd) Nh).
The previous verse (53,8; cf. Acts 8,33) had already begun to introduce the notion of innocence; for it states: