The launch of the Oxford Hebrew Bible has recently been formally announced and examples of its work published. Unlike nearly all current scholarly editions of the Hebrew Bible, it aims to provide an eclectic rather than a diplomatic text. There are many aspects of the underlying reasons for this which should be approved. Nevertheless, as a project it has certain inherent weaknesses. It completely overlooks the different linguistic levels which are amalgamated in the Masoretic Text, so that its policy of maintaining the current spelling and vocalization are misguided. It also fails in its stated objective of providing a textual archetype in those cases where different editions of the text may be thought to have circulated in antiquity. And many of the most crucial decisions at the text-critical level are not included in the apparatus at all but in the commentary; indeed, in view of the unique textual nature of the MT as well as the variety of scholarly opinion about its textual history it is commentary rather than a new edition which would best serve the needs of the prospective readership.
The Isaian citation, used by Paul to describe his encounter with certain Jews in Rome, does not stand alone: it leads to a conclusion, a conclusion which is an imperative and an assurance. What is commanded is a knowledge of the plan of God already in motion, a plan to offer salvation to Jews and Gentiles. As information for Jews of Rome, this final word of Paul is best understood as a motive for repentance; knowledge of the divine plan of God, which will succeed (28b), serves as an encouragement to Roman Jews to «turn and be healed by Me».
Hebrews has more to say about Melchizedek than what is said about him in LXX Ps 109,4 (perhaps also MT Ps 110,4) and Genesis 14. Heb 7,3 says that Melchizedek is “without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life” and that “he remains a priest forever”. I discuss where the author gets this information from. Methodologically, priority should be given to an explanation made on the basis of the hermeneutical techniques that the author uses elsewhere. I argue that the surplus information found in Heb 7,3.8 stems from arguments made from silence. The author explicitly makes arguments from silence in Heb 7,14.20.
Previous studies argue that the Elder composed the letter to recommend Demetrius to Gaius, and that Third John therefore falls into the “letter of recommendation” genre. After assessing the differences between common letters of recommendation and Third John, this study examines the rhetoric of Third John in an attempt to show that it is not a letter of recommendation, but rather an epideictic rhetorical attempt to restore the Elder’s honor (discredited by Diotrephes) in Gaius’ eyes and persuade him to detach himself from Diotrephes’ reprehensible behavior by extending hospitality to the Elder’s envoys.
Job’s excessive plaint against his aggressive and hostile God is intertwined with his surprising confession of confidence (“Bekenntnis der Zuversicht”). It seems to be a special relationship between these two poles which are forming quasi two focuses of an ellipse. This article studies in ch. 16 (and 19) each pole and especially their interrelation in contrast to mitigating tendences in the ancient versions and the rabbinic exegesis. The mythic language of Job’s lament is compared with similar accadian literature for demonstrating both analogies and important differences. The author of the Book of Job uses especially the language of the mythic struggle against chaos (“Chaoskampf”) for his peculiar view of the dialectics in God.
The objective of this article is to present a research report on the census lists in Num 1 and 26 as well as to make a new proposal concerning the interpretation of the large numbers. Following Petrie and Mendenhall, the word Pl) is not understood as “a thousand” but as the name of a military unit. In addition, h)m is interpreted as a military unit, too. The plausibility of its existence is shown by means of biblical and extra-biblical sources. In conclusion, there is no need to assume that a writer or redactor confused different meanings of Pl). The population at the time of the Conquest is estimated as 120,000 people.
Jezebel’s oath, as recorded in 1 Kgs 19,2, gives some clues that from the beginning it was not intended to be kept. One such indication is the lack of the prepositional phrase yl. Lack of the phrase coupled with other contextual clues paints a picture of Jezebel as a calm and clever queen and, at the same time, it exposes Elijah’s unreasonable fear and inability to see the true matter of things.
In this short article I explain how Paul and the author of Tobit share a common theology of Israel’s divine election. Then I analyze the texts and contexts of the rare phrase o#n a@n te/lh| in GII MS. 319 of Tob 4,19 and equally rare o#n qe/lei in Rom 9,18. From this analysis it seems reasonable to conclude that in composing Rom 9,18, Paul had in mind the virtually identical phrase found in Tob 4,19.
In this study I argue that the same author reads the ransom logion in 1 Tim 2,6 and Titus 2,14 in light of Isa 42,6-7; 49,6-8. The primary evidences are the parallel between the two i3na clauses in Titus 2,14 and Barn 14,6, as well as the idea of covenant mediator, combined with a universal perspective, in 1 Tim 2,1-7. Taken together, these evidences strongly suggest influence from Isa 42,6-7; 49,6-8.