Florian Kreuzer, «Der Antagonist: Der Satan in der Hebräischen Bibel – eine bekannte Größe?», Vol. 86 (2005) 536-544
Considering the figure of N+#) in the Hebrew Bible, the attempt to reconstruct a figure which already existed in the imaginary world of Ancient Israel in biblical times must fail. Zech 3 and Job 1-2 obstruct the development of a precise image out of YHWH’s environment. The texts achieve that by their inherent vagueness of description. For this reason the antagonistic element necessary for the dramatic plot of both texts does not consist in an already existing, known being. It is rather named by the abstract term ‘the opponent’, in Hebrew "N+#)".