This article is an attempt to show that the ecclesiology of Ephesians does not deviate from that of the Proto-Pauline letters but is altogether compatible with it.
The term hn#$w#$ is revisited primarily in the Canticle of Solomon. The most ancient translation –– "lily" –– of this flower though questioned in recent decades is still widely used. The LXX’s rendering kri/non is examined and found as the best translation for the lexeme N#$w#$ –– meaning "lotus" –– being an Egyptian loan word. This translation fits to the OT references better than "lily". The textual employment of hn#$w#$ in the poetry of the Canticle is a chief and commanding proof for "lotus". The "lily" translation for both hn#$w#$ and kri/non for the majority of the OT cases is seen as incorrect since it does not pay due attention to the literary and historical context of the Canticle.
Jeremiah’s famous 70-year prophecy (Jer 25,11-12; 29,10) and the atbash codes (Jer 25,26; 51,1.41) have been the subject of much scholarly discussion, with no consensus as to their provenance or meaning. An important inscription from the reign of Esarhaddon suggests that they be viewed as inter-related rhetorical devices. The Esarhaddon inscription, written in relation to that king’s extensive building program in Babylon, contains both a 70-year decree and the Akkadian Cuneiform parallel to the Hebrew Alphabetic atbash codes, claiming that the god Marduk had inverted the 70-year decree, thus allowing Esarhaddon to rebuild the city. This inscription was likely well known to the members of the Josianic court and the elite of Judean society who were carried off to Babylon in 597 B.C.E. This suggests that Jeremiah’s 70-Year prophecy and the atbash codes were employed to direct the prophet’s audience to the Esarhaddon inscription and its implications with respect to Babylonian hegemony as a matter of divine will.
The Hebrew of the Pentateuch exhibits a hierarchy of discourse markers that indicate different organization levels in the legal texts. This organization elucidates the relationship (whether coordination or subordination) of legal stipulations with each other. The markers studied include X+yk+Pred and X+r#)+Pred constructions, yk and M) clauses, as well as a specialized use of the particle hnh. The Greek translators may have been sensitive to the use of these markers and even modified them in order to express their particular interpretation of the text.
This paper challenges current scholarly opinion in regard to the Chronicler’s belief in divine intermediaries. In 1 Chronicles 21, unlike in the Chronicler’s Vorlage, the angel is clearly distinguished from Yahweh himself, communicates Yahweh’s word to Gad, and flies. The Chronicler’s replacement of Yahweh with N+# also reflects this belief. Persian Dualism may have been influential but there is no evidence that the Chronicler felt the need to remove all aspects of evil from originating in God. Although not representing a complete doctrine of Satan, as developed in later Jewish writings, 1 Chronicles 21 is an important stage its development.