Paul Evans, «Divine Intermediaries in 1 Chronicles 21. An Overlooked Aspect of the Chronicler’s Theology», Vol. 85 (2004) 545-558
This paper challenges current scholarly opinion in regard to the Chronicler’s belief in divine intermediaries. In 1 Chronicles 21, unlike in the Chronicler’s Vorlage, the angel is clearly distinguished from Yahweh himself, communicates Yahweh’s word to Gad, and flies. The Chronicler’s replacement of Yahweh with N+# also reflects this belief. Persian Dualism may have been influential but there is no evidence that the Chronicler felt the need to remove all aspects of evil from originating in God. Although not representing a complete doctrine of Satan, as developed in later Jewish writings, 1 Chronicles 21 is an important stage its development.