Rm 13,1-7 has been interpreted in many different ways, often incompatible. This article is an attempt to show that this passage cannot be understood without its immediate context and also that its aim is neither to work out a political doctrine, nor to ground the legitimacy of political power; nor does Paul push Christians to influence political life, but he urges them to overcome a possible attitude of fear and implicitly to extend their agape to all human beings. In doing so he innovates.
In contrast to most opinions concerning Isa 33 this pericope is far too complex to be explained as one coherent literary unit. Isa 33 has a short anti-Assyrian woe-cry at its bases (vv. 1+4), which once closed the woe-cries of Isa 28–32. Vv. 1+4 were supplemented first (around 598 or 587) by a communal lament, vv. 2-3+5+7-12, bringing the idea of the punishment of Judah and the temporised destruction of the enemy in vv. 1+4 further. Second, (shortly after 539) vv. 1-5.7-12 were expanded by a salvation prophecy, vv. 6+13-24, concerning the returnees, the restoration of Jerusalem and the monarchy.
In the first half of the previous century the headings of the Psalms in the East Syriac tradition received a lot of attention, with important contributions by scholars such as Devreesse and Vosté. In 1960 Bloemendaal published an edition of these headings. Since 1960 a number of important new manuscripts became available, as well as a translation of the commentary of Theodore and a translation of the commentary of Diodore on the first fifty Psalms. This paper deals with the light shed on the history of the East Syrian headings particularly by two manuscripts not available to Bloemendaal. The examples discussed lead one to the conclusion that 6t1, used by Bloemendaal, must not be regarded as the paradigmatic witness in all instances.
After offering a critical analysis of Moloney’s synthetical parallelism for John 2–4, this article argues for a chiastic structure of the Cana-to-Cana cycle which directs the reader from the visible signs (2,1-12+4,43-54) and physical properties of religion (2,13-22+4,1-42) to Jesus as the metaphysical agent of God’s salvation and judgment (3,1-21+3,22-36). The new 'dematerialized' faith thereby subverts expectations of material restoration and reorients the believing eye not towards a sanctuary but towards the Son.
With regard to the prophecy of the death, desecration, resurrection, and ascension of the two witnesses (Rev 11,7-13) most exegetes reckon with a Jewish background. However, the Jewish parallels they refer to stem from different works, contexts, and epochs. Some exegetes also consider the passion, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus the background of Rev 11,7-13. However, the itinerary of Jesus (as presented in the New Testament) significantly differs from the events described in Rev 11,7-13. The present article suggests the Roman damnatio and consecratio as an alternative (or at least complementary) historical background for Rev 11,7-13. In contrast to both the Jewish and Christian traditions/sources, this background is both encompassing and coherent. Thus, the Roman damnatio and consecratio should be taken into account as an exegetical framework for Rev 11,7-13.