Jeremy Goldberg, «Two Assyrian Campaigns against Hezehiah and Later Eight Century Biblical Chronology», Vol. 80 (1999) 360-390
The massive Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 (reflected in 2 Kgs 18,13b; 18,1719,37) has apparently been confused with an earlier, limited invasion in Hezekiahs 14th year (reflected in 2 Kgs 18,13a.14-16; 2 Kgs 20; 2 Chr 32; Isa 22). Historically, this earlier campaign can best be dated to 712, when Sargon II apparently led the Assyrian royal guard on a Palestinian campaign. Chronologically, this dating fits perfectly with e.g. recent dating of the definitive fall of Samaria (2 Kgs 18,9: in Hezekiahs 6th year) to 720. 2 Kgs 18,9s parallel dating to Hosheas 9th year agrees with his apparent accession in 731 or 729. Dating Menahems death to 743 (as required, following biblical data, to avoid a triple overlap among Uzziah, Jotham and Ahaz) agrees with Eponym Chronicle evidence for this dating of 2 Kgs 15,19-20s presumably already desperate fiasco, and is consistent with a plausibly composite 738 tribute-list naming Menahem. Combining these datings produces a workable later 8th century biblical chronology.
Marduk-apla-iddina II (vv. 12-13). As widely accepted, the latter episode can hardly be set in (or after) 701, since this king fled from Babylon for the last time in 70311.
Since v. 13s leisurely display of wealth to these messengers and vv. 17-18s strictly long-term prophecy in response to this display12 hardly fit with an impending invasion, it appears that 2 Kgs 20s gift-bearing embassy occurred in the wake of its invasion especially since this sequence is presumably implied by 2 Chr 32,22-23s many explicitly post-invasion diplomatic gifts to Hezekiah. But setting 2 Kgs 20,12-19 in the wake of the invasion in 2 Kgs 18,13b; 18,1719,37 / 701 (or later) appears contradicted by Hezekiahs extensive display of wealth to this embassy in v. 13 (contrast 2 Kgs 18,13b; 19,29-31 and Sennacheribs own claims of destruction, as well as archaeological confirmation [n.2 above] of a Judaean disaster in 701). This dating also appears very unlikely due to: (1) the continued plotting which the Babylonian embassy presumably implies (contrast Hezekiahs shipment of tribute to Nineveh shortly after the 701 campaign), and (2) Hezekiahs to all appearances extremely complacent response in v. 19 to Isaiahs clear condemnation of this display in vv. 17-1813. On the other hand,