Jeremy Goldberg, «Two Assyrian Campaigns against Hezehiah and Later Eight Century Biblical Chronology», Vol. 80 (1999) 360-390
The massive Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 (reflected in 2 Kgs 18,13b; 18,1719,37) has apparently been confused with an earlier, limited invasion in Hezekiahs 14th year (reflected in 2 Kgs 18,13a.14-16; 2 Kgs 20; 2 Chr 32; Isa 22). Historically, this earlier campaign can best be dated to 712, when Sargon II apparently led the Assyrian royal guard on a Palestinian campaign. Chronologically, this dating fits perfectly with e.g. recent dating of the definitive fall of Samaria (2 Kgs 18,9: in Hezekiahs 6th year) to 720. 2 Kgs 18,9s parallel dating to Hosheas 9th year agrees with his apparent accession in 731 or 729. Dating Menahems death to 743 (as required, following biblical data, to avoid a triple overlap among Uzziah, Jotham and Ahaz) agrees with Eponym Chronicle evidence for this dating of 2 Kgs 15,19-20s presumably already desperate fiasco, and is consistent with a plausibly composite 738 tribute-list naming Menahem. Combining these datings produces a workable later 8th century biblical chronology.
This juxtaposition is obviously related to the juxtaposition in 2 Kgs 1819 / 2 Kgs 20 of Sennacheribs very destructive invasion of Judah / Hezekiahs reception of diplomatic gifts and display of extensive wealth following a serious illness in the same year as this invasion. One difference is that the gifts to Hezekiah in 2 Chr 32 are explicitly dated to after the Assyrian invasion. As already noted, this provides further support for the post-invasion dating of Marduk-apla-iddina IIs gift-bearing messengers that appears to be indicated by 2 Kgs 20,13.19 and contradicts associating 2 Kgs 20 with the campaign in 2 Kgs 18,1719,37 / 701 (see above with n. 12).
Another difference from 2 Kgs 1820 is that the destructiveness of the Assyrian invasion and Hezekiahs repentance, which conflict with 2 Chr 32,23.25s strong diplomatic position and pride, seem to be missing: 2 Chr 32,1 states only that Sennacherib thought "he could" conquer the cities of Judah and vv. 9-21 omit any reference to a remnant or sackcloth. Actually, these elements have been separated out in what appears to be a clear doublet of vv. 9-21: the sequel to Hezekiahs to all appearances already post-invasion pride in v. 2524 is a strikingly 2 Kgs 18,1719,37-like episode involving "wrath ¼ upon Judah and Jerusalem" averted by repentance for Hezekiah and "the people of Jerusalem" only (2 Chr 32,25-26).
In spite of its confusion, this sequence supports the preceding analysis of 2 Kgs 1820 by again placing a lesser Assyrian campaign against Hezekiah, reflected in 2 Kgs 20, before (a doublet of) the very destructive invasion reflected in 2 Kgs 18,1719,37. Since the latter is clearly datable to 701, this understanding places v. 23s strong diplomatic position of Hezekiah in the period preceding the Judaean disaster of 701, when a strong position for Hezekiah is substantiated