Jeremy Goldberg, «Two Assyrian Campaigns against Hezehiah and Later Eight Century Biblical Chronology», Vol. 80 (1999) 360-390
The massive Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 (reflected in 2 Kgs 18,13b; 18,1719,37) has apparently been confused with an earlier, limited invasion in Hezekiahs 14th year (reflected in 2 Kgs 18,13a.14-16; 2 Kgs 20; 2 Chr 32; Isa 22). Historically, this earlier campaign can best be dated to 712, when Sargon II apparently led the Assyrian royal guard on a Palestinian campaign. Chronologically, this dating fits perfectly with e.g. recent dating of the definitive fall of Samaria (2 Kgs 18,9: in Hezekiahs 6th year) to 720. 2 Kgs 18,9s parallel dating to Hosheas 9th year agrees with his apparent accession in 731 or 729. Dating Menahems death to 743 (as required, following biblical data, to avoid a triple overlap among Uzziah, Jotham and Ahaz) agrees with Eponym Chronicle evidence for this dating of 2 Kgs 15,19-20s presumably already desperate fiasco, and is consistent with a plausibly composite 738 tribute-list naming Menahem. Combining these datings produces a workable later 8th century biblical chronology.
campaign, which depict Ashdod as a kingdom. In contrast, this situation agrees with that initially created by the Ashdod campaign, as presumably described by the original Azekah text in an Ashdod section placed before the Judaean section29. Stylistic evidence strongly supports setting the Azekah text in 712, as this text is "especially close" to a text set in 714 and "very similar" to a text set in 71030.
The Azekah texts detailed account of border operations in the Shephelah is very consistent with the limited, Shephelah-oriented campaign against Judah that seems indicated by 2 Kgs 18,14-16 (when separated from 2 Kgs 18,13b; 18,1719,37) and Isa 22,1-14. The personal involvement of the Assyrian king provides another point of agreement between 2 Kgs 18,14-16 and the Azekah text, in which such involvement appears guaranteed by the detailed nature of this text31, but poses a stumbling-block for the setting of either text in 712: according to the generally relied-on Eponym Chronicle, Sargon II stayed "in the land" (Assyria) in 71232. Moreover, Isa 20,1 ascribes the capture of Ashdod to a subordinate of Sargon II. However if 2 Kgs 18,14-16 is indeed set in 712, as occasionally suggested33, Sargon II could very well simply have been at the great Judaean fortress of Lachish (v. 14), commanding the assault on the most important rebel state, when his officer captured Ashdod. More importantly, Sargon IIs claim to have led the Ashdod campaign in person a common Assyrian royal conceit appears to be confirmed (an overlooked and seemingly crucial point) by the make-up of the invasion force, which consisted solely of the Assyrian royal guard. Sargon IIs account can be harmonized with the Eponym Chronicle evidence by supposing that the Ashdod campaign remained outside the scope of this text due to the limited