Jeremy Goldberg, «Two Assyrian Campaigns against Hezehiah and Later Eight Century Biblical Chronology», Vol. 80 (1999) 360-390
The massive Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 (reflected in 2 Kgs 18,13b; 18,1719,37) has apparently been confused with an earlier, limited invasion in Hezekiahs 14th year (reflected in 2 Kgs 18,13a.14-16; 2 Kgs 20; 2 Chr 32; Isa 22). Historically, this earlier campaign can best be dated to 712, when Sargon II apparently led the Assyrian royal guard on a Palestinian campaign. Chronologically, this dating fits perfectly with e.g. recent dating of the definitive fall of Samaria (2 Kgs 18,9: in Hezekiahs 6th year) to 720. 2 Kgs 18,9s parallel dating to Hosheas 9th year agrees with his apparent accession in 731 or 729. Dating Menahems death to 743 (as required, following biblical data, to avoid a triple overlap among Uzziah, Jotham and Ahaz) agrees with Eponym Chronicle evidence for this dating of 2 Kgs 15,19-20s presumably already desperate fiasco, and is consistent with a plausibly composite 738 tribute-list naming Menahem. Combining these datings produces a workable later 8th century biblical chronology.
Two strong arguments for a c.712 dating of year 14 of Hezekiah could very well also point precisely to 712: (1) While the fall of Samaria equated by 2 Kgs 18,10 with year 6 of Hezekiah is usually dated to 722 or 723, 720 appears highly preferable (see section 3 below, following Galil). (2) As very widely accepted, Isa 14,28-32 appears to date the death of Hezekiahs predecessor Ahaz to around that of Tiglath-Pileser III, who died around the end of the Julian year 727 (see further n. 98 below).
Historically, in addition to an apparent limited Assyrian campaign against Judah (Azekah text evidence), the Ashdod affair presents further important points of contact with 2 Kgs 20 and Isa 2236: (1) cf. the otherwise peculiarly late start of Hezekiahs defensive preparations in Isa 22,8-11 (and 2 Chr 32,2-5) with Sargon IIs quick response to conspiracy in 712; (2) cf. 2 Kgs 20,12-13s apparently post-invasion intrigue involving Marduk-apla-iddina II with this Babylonian kings presumable involvement in anti-Assyrian conspiracies between an offensive which he launched in 712 (clearly against Assyria) and his overthrow by Assyria in 71037. Very strong