Jeremy Goldberg, «Two Assyrian Campaigns against Hezehiah and Later Eight Century Biblical Chronology», Vol. 80 (1999) 360-390
The massive Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 (reflected in 2 Kgs 18,13b; 18,1719,37) has apparently been confused with an earlier, limited invasion in Hezekiahs 14th year (reflected in 2 Kgs 18,13a.14-16; 2 Kgs 20; 2 Chr 32; Isa 22). Historically, this earlier campaign can best be dated to 712, when Sargon II apparently led the Assyrian royal guard on a Palestinian campaign. Chronologically, this dating fits perfectly with e.g. recent dating of the definitive fall of Samaria (2 Kgs 18,9: in Hezekiahs 6th year) to 720. 2 Kgs 18,9s parallel dating to Hosheas 9th year agrees with his apparent accession in 731 or 729. Dating Menahems death to 743 (as required, following biblical data, to avoid a triple overlap among Uzziah, Jotham and Ahaz) agrees with Eponym Chronicle evidence for this dating of 2 Kgs 15,19-20s presumably already desperate fiasco, and is consistent with a plausibly composite 738 tribute-list naming Menahem. Combining these datings produces a workable later 8th century biblical chronology.
(a difference in viewpoint that strongly supports the authenticity of these prophecies): vv. 28 and 32-34 promise concerning this campaign only that Sennacherib will fail to complete his conquest of Judah, while vv. 29-31 depict an impoverished Judaean remnant, confirmed by archaeology2.
The clearly indicated and extremely widely accepted setting of at least the bulk of 2 Kgs 18,1319,37 in 701 does raise a number of well-known issues. One problem arises from 2 Kgs 19,9s reference to a military force led by "Tirhakah, king of Cush", i.e. Taharqa, who did not become king until 690. However, the absence of any additional good argument for a post-701 Assyrian campaign against Hezekiah3 strongly suggests explaining Taharqas title in 2 Kgs 19,9 by prolepsis. This explanation i.e. Taharqas command in Palestine in 701 as a prince is strongly supported by a combination of 2 Kgs 19,9 with Kawa stelae IV,7-10; V,13-17 and other evidence: taken together, these stelae indicate that Taharqa led a military force north to Thebes under his predecessor Shebitku and then proceeded to the Delta with that king. This can very plausibly be connected with a Nubian intervention in 2 Kgs 19,9 / 701 especially since Shebitku is given 12 years by Eusebius and chose an unusually martial titulary, whereas his predecessor Shabako is attested in friendly relations with Sargon II and probably with Sennacherib4.