Lamentations reflects the silence of God. God seemingly does not act or speak. To some, this detachment represents an absence of God; to others, a «hiddenness» of God (Deus absconditus). Analysis of Lam 3,55-57, the crux interpretum for the divine silence, suggests the q strophe may break this oppressive silence. The strophe reflects an awareness of God who speaks. God stands in the background of the whole of life for this poet, emerging only fleetingly and in ways oblique. This perspective is similar to the ambiguous, indeterminate approach to reality in postmodernism. The divine Voice thus joins other voices in Lamentations.
The final word in the Masoretic Text of Ps 22,22, ynitfyni(j, has been understood by many commentators to represent a sudden declaration of rescue received. Others, often believing that such an announcement would represent a shift in the progression of the Psalm of excessive awkwardness, have preferred a variant reading reconstructed from the Septuagint in which such a dramatic transition is absent. Recent proposals regarding the semantics of the qatal form of the Hebrew verb strengthen the case for retaining the MT reading and interpreting it as a precative perfect which reiterates the preceding pleas for deliverance.
In the Gospels, Jesus' last supper involves custom and legal issues: chronological discrepancies between the Synoptics and John, a mock trial before the Sanhedrin, two trials before Pilate (John), and so on. This study focuses on the calendar problem, a topic of utmost importance in ancient Judaism, and follows A. Jaubert's hypothesis, against J. Jeremias' now classical view: the Synoptics display a somewhat loose connection with the Jubilees sectarian calendar, while John's chronology seems to be historically more accurate.
Scholars have suggested that Gal 3,28 is comparable to similar sayings found in rabbinic writings, and that the latter can help in interpreting and understanding the meaning and theology of Gal 3,28. In this study we have analysed and compared the alleged similar sayings found in Jewish texts and Gal 3,28 in order to demonstrate that Gal 3,28 is neither literally nor thematically related to the former, and we should not allow the alleged similar sayings found in rabbinic writings to influence our reading of Gal 3,28. Both texts reflect the conceptual uses of pairs of opposites in the Greco-Roman tradition, but at the same time, their subsequent usages or occurrences in Jewish and Christian texts came into being independently from one another.
Assuming the Christian group of Thessalonica to be a professional voluntary association of hand-workers (probably leatherworkers), this paper argues that 1 Thessalonians in general, and especially the injunction to «keep quiet» (4,11), indicates Paul’s apprehension regarding how Roman rulers, city dwellers, and Greek oligarchies would perceive an association converted to an exclusive cult and eager to actively participate in the redistribution of the city resources. Paul, concerned about a definite practical situation rather than a philosophically or even theologically determined attitude, delivered precise counsel to the Thessalonians to take a stance of political quietism as a survival strategy.
The term, hmx, is a frequent descriptor of anger in the Bible. Notably, its syntactic context depends on whether hmx describes human anger or the anger of God. The syntax of human hmx highlights the experience of being aggrieved whereas the syntax of divine hmx emphasizes the consequence of provocation. As such, human hmx tends to be the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of passive verbs that describe the experience of being provoked. By contrast, divine hmx tends to be the object of transitive verbs and the subject of passive verbs that describe God’s reprisal. Additionally, divine hmx occurs as part of the curious construct &alquo;cup of hmx&rlquo;. We believe that these observations reflect an underlying struggle to reconcile the anthropomorphic idea of an emotional God with an omnipotent and invulnerable deity.
In a 1978 article, Deem proposed to read xcm in 1 Sam 17,49 as «greave» rather than «forehead». However, this reading has not gained wide acceptance partly because its lack of external support. This article explores the possibility that the description of a combat detail in the pseudepigraphal Testament of Judah may in fact be traceable to an understanding of 1 Sam 17,49 in line with Deem’s proposal. If so, this may constitute the very external support needed to lend further credibility to the reading championed by Deem.
Commentaries and translations have traditionally translated the preposition, rx), in 1 Sam 13,7b (wyrx) wdrx M(h) as either modifying the subject or indicating the «back» of Saul. However, the preposition is better explained as «following and imitating» so that the army trembled like Saul. Since Saul was afraid of the Philistines, his fear infects the army, which scatters from him. Therefore, Saul, according to the Davidic court historian, is an ineffective military leader.