Martin McNamara, «Melchizedek: Gen 14,17-20 in the Targums, in Rabbinic and Early Christian Literature», Vol. 81 (2000) 1-31
The essay is introduced by some words on the nature of the Aramaic translations of Gen 14 used in the study (the Tgs. Onq., Pal. Tgs. as in Tgs. Neof. I, Frg. Tgs., Ps.-J.). Tg. Neof. identifies the Valley of Shaveh (Gen 14,17) as the Valley of the Gardens (pardesaya). The value of Tg. Neof.s evidence here is doubtful. Most Targums retain Melchizedek as a personal name (not so Tg. Ps.-J.). Salem of v. 18 is identified as Jerusalem. Melchizedek is identified as Shem, son of Noah, mainly because of the life-span assigned to Shem in Gen 11. The question of Melchizedeks priesthood in early rabbinic tradition and in the Targums (Tg. Gen 14; Tg Ps. 110) is considered, as is also the use of Jewish targumic-type tradition on Melchizedek in such early Fathers as Jerome, Ephrem, and Theodore of Mopsuestia.
141; 427243. Dr. David Steck, of the University of Sheffield, is preparing an English translation from the manuscripts, and also preparing a critical edition of the Aramaic text of the Targum44. He uses four manuscripts (Cambridge, Cambridge University Library Ee. 5.9 = siglum C; Paris, BNF Héb. 17 = siglum P17; Paris BNF Héb. 110 = siglum P110; Parma, Biblioteca Palatina, 3231 = siglum Pm) and the two printed texts. These six witnesses represent 3 distinct text types: 1) C P17 Pm; 2) M P110; 3) B. The base text used by D. Steck for his translation is MS Paris, BNF Héb. 17 (P17).
A feature of Targums of Psalms (like the related Targum of Job) is that within the text itself alternative renderings are given, under the heading "Another translation".
Despite variation among the text types, the central form of translation seems to be the same in all. The Targum carries the heading, as in the HT: "By David. A psalm". The speaker of the psalm is taken as David, who is being addressed by the Lord, and the contents of the translation of v. 1 indicate that the Lord is speaking to David. Tg. Ps. 110,1 reads as follows:
By David. A psalm. The LORD said in his Memra that he would give me the lordship, because I had sat for the instruction of the Law: "Wait at my right hand, until I make your enemies a stool for your feet". Another Translation: The Lord said in his Memra that he would make me lord over Israel. However, he said to me: "Return and wait for Saul, who is of the tribe of Benjamin, until he dies; for you are not associated with a kingdom that is near ()brqm )twklm; or: "the present kingdom"); and afterwards I will make your enemies a stool for your feet.
As P. Billerbeck has noted, this interpretation of v. 1 is that of R. Juda ben Shallum the Levite (died ca. 370), and is taken from the rabbinic Midrash on Psalms (Ps 110, par. 5)45.
It is not quite clear what the Lords words to David, telling him that he is not associated with a kingdom that is near, are intended to