Martin McNamara, «Melchizedek: Gen 14,17-20 in the Targums, in Rabbinic and Early Christian Literature», Vol. 81 (2000) 1-31
The essay is introduced by some words on the nature of the Aramaic translations of Gen 14 used in the study (the Tgs. Onq., Pal. Tgs. as in Tgs. Neof. I, Frg. Tgs., Ps.-J.). Tg. Neof. identifies the Valley of Shaveh (Gen 14,17) as the Valley of the Gardens (pardesaya). The value of Tg. Neof.s evidence here is doubtful. Most Targums retain Melchizedek as a personal name (not so Tg. Ps.-J.). Salem of v. 18 is identified as Jerusalem. Melchizedek is identified as Shem, son of Noah, mainly because of the life-span assigned to Shem in Gen 11. The question of Melchizedeks priesthood in early rabbinic tradition and in the Targums (Tg. Gen 14; Tg Ps. 110) is considered, as is also the use of Jewish targumic-type tradition on Melchizedek in such early Fathers as Jerome, Ephrem, and Theodore of Mopsuestia.
servant as a servant who went from Abraham to woo Rebecca for Isaac. The next gloss (Ml 127d4) interprets v. 1, with Abrahams servant as the intended speaker: Dixit .i. seruus (the speaker is Abrahams servant); dominus .i. deus pater (that is, Abrahams servant said that God the Father said); domino .i. abrachae (that is, the lord who is addressed is Abraham). The gloss goes on to note (as the Latin Epitome being glossed does) that such an interpretation is false. The next gloss (Ml 127d5) tells what the understanding would be if David were speaker (corresponding to the second Jewish interpretation of the Epitome): the subject of dixit is David; Dominus is Deus Pater; domino is Abraham, that is, David said (in this Psalm): God the Father said to Abraham, Davids master. With the Latin Epitome, the gloss adds: such an understanding, indeed, is error.
5. Jewish Interpretation of Psalm 110 according to Justin Martyr
According to Justin Martyr (Dialogue, 33) the Jews understood this psalm as speaking of King Hezekiah. No such interpretation is attested in our extant rabbinic sources40. Possibly Justin was led to believe that Jews held this opinion on Ps 110, since he knew that they interpreted as referring to Hezekiah other texts taken by Christians as messianic. Some rabbinic texts understand Ps 110 of David, as a ruler in history41. Then there were others who interpreted the Psalm of the end times: as referring to the Messiah himself or to David and his role in the new eschatological age, or of the eschatological age without mention of any Messiah42.
6. The Treatment of Melchizedek References in Tg. Psalm 110
The Targum of Psalms is known to exist in fourteen manuscripts. Linguistically scholars date the work as late, from the seventh-ninth centuries. The text was published in the second Rabbinic Bible (1525), printed by Daniel Bomberg (given siglum B), and reproduced in later printed editions. The text of MS Madrid, Biblioteca de la Universidad Complutense 116-Z-40 (siglum M) was edited by L. Díez Merino. There has been no critical edition of the entire work, although E. White has made a critical edition of the first two books of the Psalter (Pss