Martin McNamara, «Melchizedek: Gen 14,17-20 in the Targums, in Rabbinic and Early Christian Literature», Vol. 81 (2000) 1-31
The essay is introduced by some words on the nature of the Aramaic translations of Gen 14 used in the study (the Tgs. Onq., Pal. Tgs. as in Tgs. Neof. I, Frg. Tgs., Ps.-J.). Tg. Neof. identifies the Valley of Shaveh (Gen 14,17) as the Valley of the Gardens (pardesaya). The value of Tg. Neof.s evidence here is doubtful. Most Targums retain Melchizedek as a personal name (not so Tg. Ps.-J.). Salem of v. 18 is identified as Jerusalem. Melchizedek is identified as Shem, son of Noah, mainly because of the life-span assigned to Shem in Gen 11. The question of Melchizedeks priesthood in early rabbinic tradition and in the Targums (Tg. Gen 14; Tg Ps. 110) is considered, as is also the use of Jewish targumic-type tradition on Melchizedek in such early Fathers as Jerome, Ephrem, and Theodore of Mopsuestia.
AD 390-395) located the Salem of Gen 14,8 in Samaria, near Scythopolis. In fact the ruins of Melchizedeks palace were believed to be still visible there and were visited by pilgrims16.
The tradition linking Salem and Abrams encounter with Melchizedek with Samaria is an old one in Samaritan tradition. It is found in the anonymous Samaritan writer Pseudo-Eupolemus (2nd cent. BCE), in his work Peri_ 'Ioudai)wn, a writing cited by Eusebius from Polyhistor17. In a section on Abraham Pseudo-Eupolemus follows Gen 14,18-20 rather faithfully but situates the encounter with Melchizedek not in the valley of Shaveh but in a city near Garizim, the sacred mountain of the Samaritans. This tradition is probably older than Pseudo-Eupolemus. Curiously, this tradition is not reflected either in the Samaritan Pentateuch (which agrees with the MT apart from writing Ml#$ as Mwl#$) or in the Samaritan Targum.
c) Melchizedek identified
with Shem (the Great) (v. 18)18
In all texts of the Pal. Tgs. and in Ps.-J. Melchisedek is explicitly identified with "Shem (the Great)". Thus Frg. Tg.PVNL ()br/hbr M#$), Tg.