Christian Blumenthal, «Der höchste Gott und König Ptolemaios IV. Philopator: Beobachtungen zur erzählerischen Entfaltung des Gottesbildes in 3Makk», Vol. 97 (2016) 360-374
Very few scholars have analyzed the image of God in 3Macc, and studies of the narrative unfolding of this picture are nearly completely missing. This article examines the structure of the plot and the main characters in order to show that in the four "Erzählbögen" present in the narrative the central opposition is not that of King Ptolemy versus the Jewish people, but that of King Ptolemy versus the God of the Jewish people. At the end of the account -- and this is the event with the highest degree of "Ereignishaftigkeit" -- King Ptolemy acknowledges the power of Israel's God.