The genealogy in 1 Chr 5,1b-2 refers to the saying on Reuben in Gen 49,3-4 and its literary context, Genesis 48–49. In this way it defines the relationship between the three sons of Jacob (i.e. the tribes) Reuben, Joseph, and Judah. While Reuben’s status as firstborn is described with the use of a mere chronological 'before', he himself is characterized by the significant loss of his prerogatives. This description of Reuben sets the tone for what is said about the Eastern tribes (1 Chr 5,3-26), in the history of which an ephemeral conquest made by Reuben (only) in the East (cf. 1 Chr 5,10.18- 22) precedes a (permanent) exile of these tribes (cf. 1 Chr 5,6.25-26).
The book of Numbers devotes ample space to Eleazar, Aaron's third son who becomes heir to his father's priesthood after the mysterious death of his two older brothers, Nadab and Abihu. The article shows how Eleazar's destiny is marked, at every important stage, by someone's death, a fact which favours his rise to the high priesthood. The analysis of the texts suggests that the dynasty of Zadok could be the priestly group interested in putting forward Eleazar's figure.
The New Testament Gospels exhibit an amalgam of biographical genre elements from Greco-Roman cultivated literature (Hochliteratur) and popular literature ('Kleinliteratur'), Old Testament historiography, and rabbinic literature. They display the least affinity with the erudite Bioi of Greco- Roman Hochliteratur (pace R. Burridge). Similarities with Greco-Roman popular lives are more evident. But M. Reiser’s thesis that the Gospels were influenced to an even greater degree by the biographical sections of Old Testament history books can be further strengthened. In addition, it is possible to demonstrate close affinities between the Gospels and the biographical components of rabbinic literature. Overall the four New Testament Gospels can be characterized as biographies of Jesus in Old Testament and Rabbinic style with comparatively slight Greco-Roman influences.
Our study shows that the Hebrew word tndgm refers to fruits which the servant gave to Rebecca’s family as a present. This interpretation is based on examination of the masculine singular and plural forms of the Hebrew word dgm and ydgm which mean fruits. Examination of the Biblical text shows that the bounty of the land also refers to fruits. Giving fruits as a present to Rebecca’s family is not surprising since giving fruits to royalty and people alike in the ancient world was a gesture of good will.
This short note discusses the possible etymology of the divine name Chemosh. It seems to be derived from the same root as the rare adjective kummusu, synonymous with the Akkadian divine epithet rašbu, 'awesome'. Consequently, the name of the god Chemosh can be interpreted as 'Redoubtable'.
The deuterocanonical Book of Tobit is a delightful story that employs ironic flourishes in its narrative. The word mistos which literally means 'wages' and figuratively connotes 'reward' appears frequently in the story. It is argued that the narrative use of the word participates in dramatic irony. As a rhetorical strategy, the irony addresses the limitations of the title character’s espousal of the traditional typology for reward and punishment.
This article explores the genesis of some parables in the Gospel of Thomas not found elsewhere. They are not thematically related to each other. Then, how many parables exist in the text? In what way are they different or the same in comparison with the canonical Gospels? These parables in Thomas were not excluded from the concern of the post-1960s scholars, but the literary standard was not unified. The Greek fragments (P. Oxy. 654, 1, and 655) do not offer any crucial source in this case, but the Coptic manuscripts (NHC II, 2. 32-51) evince a new insight that the unknown parable tradition is not intended to show dependency on the canonical tradition; rather they commonly provide key evidence which proves the pre-gnostic Jewish sophia tradition.