Wolfgang Schütte, «Israels Exil in Juda und die Volkersprüche in Am 1-2», Vol. 92 (2011) 528-553
For the composition of the oracles against the nations (Am 1,3–2,16) one historical background can be described. The disaster of the end of Israel 720 BCE was taken into consideration by Israelites living in a Judaean exile. Sorrow about Israelites deported to Edom, perhaps for working in copper mines, is connected with the threat of violence from neighbouring countries who kept some autonomy under the Assyrian reign. The oracles of Judah and Israel tell about religious and social problems in the Judaean exile as seen by the Israelite heirs of Amos’ and Hosea’s prophecies.