Gershon Galil, «A New Look at the Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III», Vol. 81 (2000) 511-520
The first part of the article re-examines the inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III, mainly Summary inscriptions 4, 9, 10 and Ann. 18, 23, 24. The author proposes a new reading to line 6 of Summ. 4 by adding a verb (abil or aks$ud) at the end of this line, and separating lines 5-6 from lines 7-8. In the author’s opinion Ann. 18 and 24 are indeed parallel versions depicting the events of 732, yet, Ann. 18 describes the conquest of Galilee, while Ann. 24 deals with the conquest of Damascus. The second part of the article examines the relations between Assyria and the West in the days of Tiglath-pileser III in light of the new proposals offered in the first part of the article.
The king of Arvad is not listed among the kings offering tribute to Assyria in 738, so we may assume that Arvad did not surrender, not even after the defeat of the kings of Unqi and the Phoenician kingdoms to the north of Byblos. The Assyrians defeated Arvad apparently during their campaign of 734, as is evident from the list of offerings to Assyria in 734 (Tadmor, Inscriptions, Summ. 7: rev.·10')25.
4. The relations between Israel and Assyria (737-731)
Aram and Israel attacked Jerusalem during the reign of Ahaz, king of Judah, and wished to crown a king of their choice over Judah. As a result of the Aramean-Israelite attack, Ahaz sent seraphs and offerings to Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria (2 Kgs 16,7-8). According to v.·9 the king of Assyria accepted Ahaz’s appeal and attacked Aram, conquered Damascus, and killed Rezin. The time when Assyria subjugated Judah cannot clearly be learned from these passages, whether before or after the request of Ahaz26.
Ahaz is specifically mentioned in a summary inscription from Calah (K 3751 = Tadmor, Inscriptions, Summ. 7: rev.·11') ‘Jehoahaz [Ya-ú-ha-zi] of Judah’ and the kings of Amon, Moab, Edom and Philistia are mentioned among those who conveyed offerings to Assyria. This summary inscription was written following the 17th year of Tiglath-pileser III, namely 729-728 (rev.·5'). The events are described in geographical order, not chronologically: lines 1'-6', which depict the reduction of the Arabs and other nomads, and the appointment of Idibi’ilu, apparently reflect the events which occurred in 733-732; lines 7'-9' present an updated list of tribute to Assyria during 738 27. This list does not contain the names of several kings, among them are those of Aram and Israel. Lines 10'-13' list kings of Phoenicia, Philistia, Judah, and Transjordan who were not included amongst those who brought tribute in 738, whereas in lines rev. 14'-16' two additional events apparently dating to the end of this period are mentioned: the payment of offering by Metenna of Tyre and the deposition of Uassurme king of Tabal. Since the latter is included in rev.·9' of the same inscription among the givers of tribute, rev.·14'-16' are obviously additions to the list, which is compiled by the combination of several passages. The mention of Panammu, king of Samal, and of [Mi]tinti of Ashkelon in summary inscription 7 indicates that the tribute was paid in 734, since Panammu king of Samal was killed during the siege of Damascus in 733-732 (KAI, 215, ll. 16-18); whereas [Mi]tinti king of Ashkelon was deposed apparently in 732 (Tadmor, Inscriptions, Ann. 18: 8'-9' and 24: 12'-16').