Gershon Galil, «A New Look at the Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III», Vol. 81 (2000) 511-520
The first part of the article re-examines the inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III, mainly Summary inscriptions 4, 9, 10 and Ann. 18, 23, 24. The author proposes a new reading to line 6 of Summ. 4 by adding a verb (abil or aks$ud) at the end of this line, and separating lines 5-6 from lines 7-8. In the author’s opinion Ann. 18 and 24 are indeed parallel versions depicting the events of 732, yet, Ann. 18 describes the conquest of Galilee, while Ann. 24 deals with the conquest of Damascus. The second part of the article examines the relations between Assyria and the West in the days of Tiglath-pileser III in light of the new proposals offered in the first part of the article.
Shamshi was probably crowned in 737 or 736 and carried on the former policy. The Arabs gave tribute to Assyria in 740-735, whereas in 734 the Arabs joined the Aramean-Israelite coalition. The surrender of the Arabs was closely followed by that of the other nomad tribes mentioned in the Assyrian inscriptions (including ‘Massa’, Tema’, Ephah’, and others). Transjordan was also conquered during this campaign and the exiles from the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh were deported to Assyria (2 Kgs 15,29; 1 Chr 5,6; 22,25-26).
The subjugation of the kingdoms of Israel and Aram was completed only in 732 (see above discussion on the connection between Anns. inscriptions 18, 23, 24). The Assyrian army conquered the Galilee (2 Kgs 15,26; Tadmor, Inscriptions, Ann 18: 2'-7'), the cities of Ephraim and Manasseh, and besieged Samaria (Tadmor, Inscriptions, Summ. 13: 17'-18'). Only the reduction of cities located in upper and lower Galilee are mentioned in the biblical and Assyrian sources, yet there is no doubt that Assyria conquered all Israelite cities apart from Samaria31.
The siege of Damascus was completed apparently in 732. Rezin was killed and the kingdom of Aram was annexed to Assyria and divided into four provinces (2 Kgs 16,9; Tadmor, Inscriptions, Summ. 9: rev. 3'-4'; Summ. 4: 6'-8'). Samaria and Ashkelon also surrendered due to the fall of Damascus. Palace revolutions occurred in both cities. Mitinti was deposed by Rukibtu, whereas Hoshea, who killed Pekah, seized power over Israel (2 Kgs 15,30; Tadmor, Inscriptions, Summ. 8: 10'-13'; Summ. 9: rev.·9'-11'; Summ. 4: 15'-19'; Summ. 13: 18')32. Hoshea was crowned in 732-731. Evidence for this date comes from an Assyrian inscription which indicates that Hoshea gave tribute to the king of Assyria in Sarabanu, presumably in 731 (Tadmor, Summ. 9: rev.·9'-11')33.