Andrei Orlov, «Moses’ Heavenly Counterpart in the Book of Jubilees and the
Exagoge of Ezekiel the Tragedian», Vol. 88 (2007) 153-173
The paper provides conceptual background for the idea of the angel of the presence as the heavenly counterpart of Moses in the Book of Jubilees and the Exagoge of Ezekiel the Tragedian. The identity of the celestial scribe in the form
of the angel of the presence found in the Book of Jubilees and some other Second Temple materials might further our understanding of the enigmatic process of
mystical and literary emulation of the exemplary figure, the cryptic mechanics of which often remains beyond the grasp of our post/modern sensibilities. It is possible that in the traditions of heavenly counterparts where the two characters
of the story, one of which is represented by a biblical exemplar, become eventually unified and acquire a single identity, we are able to draw nearer to the very heart of the pseudepigraphical enterprise. In this respect, it does not appear to be coincidental that these transformational accounts dealing with the heavenly doubles of their adepts are permeated with the aesthetics of penmanship and the
imagery of the literary enterprise. In the course of these mystical and literary metamorphoses, the heavenly figure surrenders his scribal seat, the library of the celestial books and even personal writing tools to the other, earthly identity who now becomes the new guardian of the literary tradition.
Mosesâ€™ Heavenly Counterpart 161
the angel (or the prince) of the presence, but also that the angelic guides
who acquaint the seer with his upper celestial identity and its offices are
depicted as angels of the presence. In this respect the figure of one of
the angelic servants of the divine presence is especially important. Both
Jacob and Enoch materials contain numerous references to the angel of
the presence under the name Uriel, who is also known in various
traditions under the names of Phanuel and Sariel (30).
In 2 Enoch 22â€“23, Uriel (31) plays an important role during Enochâ€™s
initiations near the Throne of Glory (32). He instructs Enoch about
various subjects of esoteric knowledge in order to prepare him for
various celestial offices, including the office of the heavenly scribe. 1
Enoch 71 also refers to the same angel but names him Phanuel. In the
Similitudes, he occupies an important place among the four principal
angels, namely, the place usually assigned to Uriel. In fact, the angelic
name Phanuel might be a title which stresses the celestial status of
Uriel/Sariel (33) as one of the servants of the Divine Panim (34).
(30) J. Smith observes that in five instances in 1 Enoch (40,9; 54,6; 71,8.9.13),
confined to the Similitudes, Phanuel replaces Uriel in a catalog of the four
archangels. He also points out that while Sariel is a relatively unknown angelic
figure, his name seems to be quite frequently conflated with Uriel, as in 1 Enoch
9,1. Cf. SMITH, â€œPrayer of Josephâ€, II, 708-709. For the discussion about Uriel-
Sariel-Phanuel, see: J. GREENFIELD, â€œProlegomenonâ€, H. ODEBERG, 3 Enoch or
the Hebrew Book of Enoch (New York 1973) xxxiv-xxxv; H.G. LUNT, â€œLadder
of Jacobâ€, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, II, 405, n. 10; J. MILIK, The Books
of Enoch (Oxford 1976) 170-174; S. OLYAN, A Thousand Thousands Served Him.
Exegesis and the Naming of Angels in Ancient Judaism (TSAJ 36; TÃ¼bingen
1993) 105-109; J.Z. SMITH, â€œThe Prayer of Josephâ€, Religions in Antiquity. Essays
in Memory of Erwin Ramsdell Goodenough (ed. J. NEUSNER) (Sup Numen 14;
Leiden 1968) 270 and 227; G. VERMES, â€œThe Archangel Sariel: A Targumic
Parallel to the Dead Sea Scrollsâ€, Christianity, Judaism and Other Greco-Roman
Cults (SJLA 12:3; Leiden 1975) 159-166; IDEM, â€œThe Impact of the Dead Sea
Scrolls on Jewish Studiesâ€, JJS 26 (1975) 13.
(31) Slav. Vereveil.
(32) The beginning of this tradition can be found in the Book of Heavenly
Luminaries (1 Enoch 74,2), where Enoch writes the instructions of the angel Uriel
regarding the secrets of heavenly bodies and their movements. M. KNIBB, The
Ethiopic Book of Enoch. A New Edition in the Light of the Aramaic Dead Sea
Fragments (Oxford 1978) II, 173.
(33) G. Vermes observes that at Qumran, â€œSariel becomes one of the four chief
angels, replacing Uriel, the traditional fourth archangel in the Greek Enoch and
midrashic literature ... He also appears in an Aramaic fragment of 4Q Enoch 9:1â€. G.
VERMES, â€œThe Impact of the Dead Sea Scrolls on Jewish Studiesâ€, JJS 26 (1975) 13.
(34) Hekhalot Rabbati (Synopse Â§108) refers to the angel Suria/Suriel as the
Prince of the Face: Âµynph rÃ§ layrws/ayrws. Cf. P. SCHÃ„FER â€“ M. SCHLÃœTER â€“ H.G.