Cornelis Bennema, «Spirit-Baptism in the Fourth Gospel. A Messianic Reading of John 1,33», Vol. 84 (2003) 35-60
The various ways of understanding "baptism in the Holy Spirit" has caused much division in both academic scholarship and the church. Most theories have been based on the Synoptics and Acts, but the phrase o( bapti/zwn e)n pneu/mati a(gi/w| is also present in the Fourth Gospel (1,33). However, Johannine scholarship has hardly given attention to this concept. This paper will seek to establish that o( bapti/zwn e)n pneu/mati a(gi/w| is a programmatic statement for Jesus’ nexus of soteriological activities in relation to people by means of the Spirit. "To baptize with Holy Spirit" refers to Jesus’ programme of cleansing people through revelation by means of the Spirit. Moreover, this concept is rooted in Jewish messianic traditions, which were able to expect a messiah who would judge, restore and cleanse by means of his Spirit-imbued word.
as 4 Ezra) has many references to a messiah (once alluding to Isa 42,1 in 70,10), it does not reveal much of his functions, except the now common picture of a warrior-messiah who will bring judgement and "salvation" (30; 40; 72-73). Regarding the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, the Testament of Levi 18,2-9 delineates a priestly messiah (but rooted in Isa 11) upon whom the Spirit of understanding and sanctification/cleansing rests, and who will effect judgement and peace33.
2. Qumran Literature
In Qumran literature, we find the conceptualization of three eschatological figures — occasionally a Prophet like Moses, and more often the Messiah of Aaron and the Messiah of Israel (1QS 9,11 is the locus classicus for this expectation, but cf. CD 7,17-21; 1Q28a col 2,11-22; 4Q174 f1-3 col 1,10-13; 4Q175 5-18)34. We shall first elucidate the messianic ideas in a few individual texts and then determine whether these portrayals contain common elements. 1Q28b col 5,21-26 echoes Isaiah 11 and presents a messiah endowed with the Spirit of knowledge and might who will bring judgement and "salvation" with the power of his mouth, with the xwr of his lips. It would probably not be too wide of the mark to claim that the powerful xwr of his mouth either refers to the Spirit of might or to the effect of his Spirit-endowment. Isaiah 11,1-5 is even cited in its entirety in 4Q161 f8-10 col 3,11-16. This suggests that the powerful effect of the xwr of the Messiah’s lips is due to his endowment of the Spirit (of might). Perhaps this is why in line 19 the execution of the Messiah’s enemies by the xwr of his lips can be directly related (or attributed) to God’s support of the Messiah with the Spirit of might. 4Q534 col 1,8-10; 2,7-16 probably alludes to Isaiah 11 and 42 when it depicts God’s Chosen