Blane W. Conklin, «Arslan Tash I and other Vestiges of a Particular Syrian Incantatory Thread», Vol. 84 (2003) 89-101
The first part of this article is a new translation and interpretation of the first incantational plaque from Arslan Tash in northern Syria. Each of the three succeeding sections identifies and discusses elements of this incantation that find resonance in texts from Ugarit, Egypt, and the Hebrew Bible, respectively. At Ugarit we find texts predating Arslan Tash which describe incantational activity involving Horon and the Sun-deity, both of whom are present in the Arslan Tash text, and who have similar roles in the two traditions. Horon is also present in Egypt during the last centuries of the city of Ugarit, and is there also associated with the Sun-deity and performs similar functions as at Arslan Tash. In the Passover account of Exod 12 there are several elements in common with Arslan Tash, albeit in the distinctive form that might be expected in the theological and literary tradition of the Hebrew Bible.
Hebrews on the eve of their exodus from Egypt. It is worth citing therefore their entire comment on the matter:
We believe it not farfetched to point out a parallel between the plaque, and its function, and the marks made with the blood of the Passover lamb on the doorposts of Israelites in Yahwistic tradition, designed to protect Israelite firstborn in the night of the last plague on Egypt (Exodus 12:22f.). No less a parallel is the practice required by the Deuteronomist, also writing in the seventh century, instructing the children of Israel to inscribe their doorposts with words from the law (Deut. 6:4-9). These practices in Israel evidently had a pagan background. In other words, we suggest that the Arslan Tash plaque was a pagan prototype of the mezu4za4h, the Israelite portal inscription.
Cross and Saley do not go into any detail about the parallels, or how they might have come into Israelite practice, nor do they explain why the AT1 plaque itself can in any way be a "prototype" of something known from the Deuteronomist, to say nothing of the Yahwist. But their general observation is valid nonetheless.
W. Propp has also suggested this parallel39. He relies on Cross and Saley as well as KAI for his understanding of AT1, so his interpretation of the text on the figures (lines 19-29) is not informed by Pardee’s corrections (which appeared too late to be used by him). Following Cross and Saley in identifying three evil beings in the text, he says that "these all must be close cousins of the original paschal demon" 40.
Also to be mentioned in this respect is the translation by McCarter, where at the end of line 6 he has referenced Exod 12, 21-3241.
There are three basic parallels between AT1 and the Passover account of Exod 12.
First, in each text, unwanted night-time intruders are prevented from entering through the door of a house to kill occupants inside42 (AT1 lines 5-8, 19-26; Exod 12,7.12-13.22-23.29-30)43. Though AT1 line 19 mentions a