A.E. Gardner, «Daniel 7,2-14: Another Look at its Mythic Pattern», Vol. 82 (2001) 244-252
This paper focuses upon a re-examination of the mythological background to the apocalyptic vision of Daniel 7. The popularly accepted Canaanite source is rejected as the points of correspondence are shown to be even slighter than recognised hitherto. Gunkel’s thesis of the Enuma Elish as similar to Dan 7 is revived and given further support. It is pointed out that whereas the question of access, for the author of Daniel, to the Baal mythology is problematic, the Enuma Elish was still being recited in the Hellenistic period.
and Daniel has been undervalued. This is likely to have happened for two reasons: firstly Gunkel’s treatment does not refer in a sufficiently precise way to all the similarities and secondly, the discoveries at Ugarit drew scholarly attention away from the Enuma Elish26.
In the following table the correspondences between Dan 7,2-14 and the Enuma Elish are delineated.
|The four winds of heaven27 caused28 the great sea29 to break forth (Dan 7,2).||
...Anu formed and produced four winds...
He caused a wave and it roiled Tiamat (Ee I 105,108 30).
|Four great beasts arise from the sea which had been disturbed; the first three are characterised in terms of known creatures (Dan 7,3-6).||Eleven31 monsters, who are described in terms of known animals, real or mythological, result from Tiamat having been disturbed (Ee I 134-144; also II 20-30; III 24-34,82-92).|