Hans Ausloos, «Exod 23,20-33 and the War of YHWH», Vol. 80 (1999) 555-563
Some crucial elements of the compositional structure of the "war of YHWH" which can be found in Exod 14, Josh 10, Judg 4 and 1 Sam 7, equally occur in Exod 23,20-33. The differences between the latter text and the former pericopes, however, point into the conclusion that Exod 14, Josh 10, Judg 4 and 1 Sam 7 on the one hand and Exod 23,20-33 on the other are separate witnesses of an earlier tradition about YHWH as warrior.
canon, it only occurs in Judg 2,1-5, a passage that, in my view, is a summary of several traditions about the Exodus and the journey through the desert47. The construction ynpl Klh (v. 23), with a divine messenger as subject, only occurs in the book of Exodus (Exod 14,19; 23,23; 32,34)48. Within the Deuteronomistic canon, the noun hmy) (v. 27) is only found in Deut 32,25 and Josh 2,9. In the former passage, however, the term functions as a threat to Israel. According to the latter text, the Israelites themselves are a threat to the enemy, contrary to Exod 23,27 in which God will send his terror ahead of the Israelites49. Finally, the noun h(rc (v. 28) occurs only three times in the Hebrew Bible (Exod 23,28; Deut 7,20; Josh 24,12). Although these passages have several elements in common, this term cannot be considered to be typically Deuteronom(ist)ic50.
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The comparison of Exod 23 with the (Deuteronomistic) scheme of YHWH-war in Exod 14, Josh 10, Judg 4 and 1 Sam 7, together with a brief investigation of the other elements within the epilogue of the "Book of the Covenant", which scholars have indicated as related to the motif of war of YHWH, is not truly indicative of the dependence of Exod 23 on Deuteronomistic literature. On the contrary, the language that seems to be connected with the "war of YHWH" rather suggests that the author(s) of Exod 23 has/have made use of a teminology that was peculiar to a tradition about YHWH as warrior, which probably has been used by the author(s) of the (Deuteronomistic) scheme as well.