R. Gnuse, «The Temple Theophanies of Jaddus, Hyrcanus, and Zechariah», Vol. 79 (1998) 457-472
A close reading of three accounts concerning theophanies experienced in the Temple (Ant 11,326-328, Ant 13,282-283, and Luke 1,5-23) implies that all three narratives share a common narrative format. Though it does not necessarily indicate that Luke used Josephus writings, this similarity suggests that both authors may have drawn upon a common format. Use of this format and specific variations added to it by Luke reflect significant theological themes imparted to the narrative by Luke, especially in regard to the identities of John the Baptist and Jesus.
In the great debate concerning possible influence exerted by either Josephus or the author of Luke-Acts upon the other, Sterling sides with the majority of scholars who conclude that no such influence exists, especially since the Antiquities and Luke-Acts were roughly contemporaneous works (80-100 CE) 2. However, this does not exclude observations which posit that both historians shared the same literary and ideological agenda in their approach to apologetic historiography, nor does it exclude the possibility that both historians might have shared common sources. Sterling indeed postulates that they shared in an east-Mediterranean or "oriental" historiographical tradition over against the "occidental" tradition of Latin and Greek historians, and he seeks to delineate these commonalities. Ultimately, both defended their own "people" to a hostile Graeco-Roman audience 3.
In an excellent article Heinz Schreckenberg carefully considers parallel narratives in Josephus and Luke-Acts and comes to the conclusion that, despite what some scholars have said about the many parallels between the two authors, there are actually few substantial parallels. For him most of the coincidences may be explained by the simple fact that both authors had as their object of consideration much of the same first-century CE. historical scene. Schreckenberg wisely observes that in many details the differences between Josephus and Luke-Acts are so great as to refute any possible influence of one upon the other 4. However, Schreckenberg does not consider seriously the possibility that both authors may have drawn upon common literary genres and narrative formats in shaping particular stories. Thus, he considers how both authors might