Tae Hun Kim, «The Anarthrous ui(o\j qeou= in Mark 15,39 and the Roman Imperial Cult», Vol. 79 (1998) 221-241
This article points up evidence by which the language of the Roman imperial cult might help make clearer what a reader of Mark's Gospel might understand when the centurion (Mark 15,39) refers to Jesus as ui(o\j qeou=. Knowing how an audience familiar with this cult language would react, Mark intentionally speaks of Jesus as ui(o\j qeou= at 1,1, as well as at 15,39.
as austerity and arrogance. For his contemporaries his retirement to Capreae was only a cowardly desertion of his post 30. Although Gaius Germanicus (better known as Caligula), who succeeded Tiberius, asked for divine honors on his behalf, the Senate was unable to grant it due to its incompetence and dislike of Tiberius 31. Therefore, divine ephitets attributed to Tiberius were small in number compared to those of Augustus, and his titles seem to be concerned more with politics than religion. Unlike many other Roman emperors, he does not officially claim to be a new god or a descendant of one. Inscriptions and legends attributed to Tiberius are also very similar in form to those of Augustus. The following are some notable examples: TI CAESARI DIVI AVGVSTI F AVGVSTO PONTIF MAXIMO COS V TRIB POTEST XXXIIII (ILS 159; 9 CE) = "Tiberius Caesar Augustus, son of Augustus, chief priest"; tou= au)tokra/toroj Tiberi/ou Sebastou= ui(ou= Sebastou= (Ilium; IGRR IV 206)32 = "of the Emperor Tiberius Augustus, son of Augustus"; [Tibe/rw Kai/saroj] Seba/stw pai=da (From Lesbos; IG XII 2540) = "[Tiberius Caesar] child of Augustus"; [Tibe/rioj Kai=sar qeou= Seb]astou= ui(o\[j S]ebasto\j a)rxiereu\j (Decree on Imperial cult and letter of Tiberius, Gytheion (Laconia); SEG XI 922-3) = "[Tiberius Caesar, god, Au]gustus, so[n of A]ugustus, chief priest"; Tibe/rioj Kai=sar Sebasto\j qeou= ui(o\j au)tokra/twr (SB 8317) = "Emperor Tiberius Caesar Augustus, son of god"; Tibe/rioj Kai=sar ne/oj Sebasto\j au)tokratwr qeou= Dio\j e)leuqeri/ou (POxy 240) = "Emperor Tiberius Caesar, new Augustus, son of Zeus the liberator." It is evident that Tiberius emphasizes his relationship with Augustus by asserting that he is the "son of Augustus" or a "new Augustus." This appears to have been a necessary measure for consolidating his power, considering that the influence of Augustus was so supreme even during the reign of Tiberius. However, it is remarkable that he does not openly call himself divi filius or qeou= ui(o\j33. Tiberius did not