This article resolves the occurrences of the thirteen NT verbs of “giving” into seven usages and considers the interpretation and translation of the verbs with each usage. The introductory discussion develops the semantic and syntactic criteria for identifying verbal usages and the distinguishing characteristics of verbs of “giving”. The study identifies the semantic, syntactic, and lexical properties of all occurrences of each verb with each usage, clarifies potential difficulties for interpretation, and proposes procedures for translation that accommodate the interpretive constraints with each usage. The concluding discussion distinguishes the function of complements with the same lexical realizations in different usages.
Most modern translations render b+yh in Jonah 4,4 as a predicate. However, traditional grammars take its function as an adverb that modifies the meaning of the verb, suggesting its translation as a degree adverb. Linguistic considerations support the latter option. This line of understanding opens up a possibility to
interpret Yahweh’s question in Jonah 4,4 not as a confrontation but as an expression of consolation and compassion toward his prophet.
The Greek version of Ruth is, generally speaking, a literal translation. Even the style of the Hebrew original has been replicated as the translation brings out various Semitic archaisms. The quality of style, poor from a Greek point of
view, aims at reproducing a special Hebrew local colour. This special style is avoided, however, if intelligibility is at stake. In that case, the translator reverts to a communicative translation technique. Hence, the Greek version of Ruth
integrates elements of a communicative translation into an otherwise literal translation. Considering the findings of functional translation theory, this apparent caprice should be seen as a focused and innovative translation technique which
might be described as 'integrative'.