This study of the enigmatic phrase K1d:@b;(a tla@pit@-l)e (amo#$li tw$xw%tup; K1yney('w: “and your eyes open to listen to the prayer of your servant” (Neh 1,6) utilizes an interdisciplinary approach involving insights from linguistic pragmatics and ritual theory. We will begin with a brief review of the history of interpretation of this phrase. Particular attention will then be given to elements of ritual theory, such as trigger point, ritual language, time, place, sequence, etc. Finally, we will examine the pragmatic context, discourse, and conversational strategies involved with this phrase.
This article argues that the «last hour» in 1 John 2,18 is best understood against the Old Testament background of Daniel 8,12. In particular, the only eschatological uses of «hour» (w#ra) in all of the Greek Old Testament occur in the «Old Greek» of Dan 8,17.19; 11,35.40; 12,1. There the «hour» (w#ra) refers to the specific eschatological time when the opponent of God’s people will attempt to deceive them. John sees Daniel’s prophecy as beginning to be fulfilled in the deceptive work of the Antichrist(s) who has come among the churches to which he is writing.
This article proposes that the Book of Revelation does not have a single concept of space and time. In contrast, John lets his first person narrator experience different modes of time and space, and his temporal and spatial perceptions begin to change caused by God's action in history. Thereby, John wants to highlight God's power over his creation in order to criticize and to polemicize the Roman imperial cult and its particular understanding of time.