Most modern translations render b+yh in Jonah 4,4 as a predicate. However, traditional grammars take its function as an adverb that modifies the meaning of the verb, suggesting its translation as a degree adverb. Linguistic considerations support the latter option. This line of understanding opens up a possibility to
interpret Yahweh’s question in Jonah 4,4 not as a confrontation but as an expression of consolation and compassion toward his prophet.
The article proceeds in three steps. The paradoxes in Mark 8,35; 9,35; 10,43-44 tell in their own way that the mystery of the passion and resurrection of Jesus is to be experienced by the followers of Jesus in daily life. They are not only anticipations but also actualizations of that mystery. These paradoxes cannot be understood without the Christological foundation that God has saved Jesus from the dead. The use of paradoxes is in agreement with Mark’s theology and Christology which as a whole is presented as a paradoxical story.
In the Gospels, Jesus' last supper involves custom and legal issues: chronological discrepancies between the Synoptics and John, a mock trial before the Sanhedrin, two trials before Pilate (John), and so on. This study focuses on the calendar problem, a topic of utmost importance in ancient Judaism, and follows A. Jaubert's hypothesis, against J. Jeremias' now classical view: the Synoptics display a somewhat loose connection with the Jubilees sectarian calendar, while John's chronology seems to be historically more accurate.
Five conclusions allow us to explain Jesus last days and to assess the significance of the actual Gospel narratives. Firstly, his last Passover meal (Synoptics, solar calendar) took place on one Tuesday evening; secondly, the origin of the Eucharistic rite on the Lord’s day has nothing to do with Passover; thirdly, a feast of Passover-Easter (Pa/sxa) on a specific Sunday emerged somewhat late in the IInd century; fourthly, before this date, the Synoptics did not have their final shape; fifthly Josephus provides us with a clue to understand Jesus’ double trial before Pilate in the Passion narrative of John.
This article argues that the «last hour» in 1 John 2,18 is best understood against the Old Testament background of Daniel 8,12. In particular, the only eschatological uses of «hour» (w#ra) in all of the Greek Old Testament occur in the «Old Greek» of Dan 8,17.19; 11,35.40; 12,1. There the «hour» (w#ra) refers to the specific eschatological time when the opponent of God’s people will attempt to deceive them. John sees Daniel’s prophecy as beginning to be fulfilled in the deceptive work of the Antichrist(s) who has come among the churches to which he is writing.
This article attempts to demonstrate that the unexpressed subject of tete/lestai in John 19,30 is 'all things' (pa/nta) rather than 'it', and that this subject should be supplied from the phrase pa/nta tete/lestai found earlier in the passage (John 19,28). The essay also argues that the two occurrences of 'all things' (John 18,4 and 19,28.30) encapsulate the passion narrative, and that this phrase is related to other Johannine themes in content and time frame (i.e. the 'hour', the 'cup', and the Passover).
The article investigates the composition of Mark 14:1-52, in particular the words of Jesus, who speaks 14 times, including the four "Amen-words". The analysis is based mainly on the number of syllabes but also on the number of words used in the text. It reveals an ingenious design of considerable refinement and complexity. Mark"s composition method appears to be determined by a remarkable sense of order and technical precision and by a high degree of professional literary skill.