The final oracle of Haggai is often viewed as royalist in orientation, with the prophet promoting Zerubbabel as a royal (or even messianic) figure. This study seeks to dispute the majority view. Neither the election terms used nor the metaphor of the “seal” assign a royal identity to him. The focus is on the dual leadership of Zerubbabel and Joshua. Nowhere in the prophecy is Zerubbabel identified unequivocally as a Davidide. The temple orientation and the highlighting of divine action show that the establishment of God’s kingdom is in view, not the promotion of Zerubbabel as God’s vice-regent.
The Kingdom of God does not play a central role in the Gospel of John. John sees it as a transcendent reality promised to humans by a 'rebirth' or a 'birth from above' (John 3,3.5). The 'Kingdom' of Jesus is not of political nature, but consists in Jesus' testimony to the truth (John 18,33-37). Besides the texts which speak expressly of the 'Kingdom' of 'God' or of 'Jesus', there are others in the Gospel of John which describe the reality of the Kingdom of God using some basic terms like peace, joy and the Holy Spirit. The roots of this tradition can be traced back to the Gospel of Luke (24,36-49) and even to the Old Testament and the Ancient Near East with its royal ideology: the ruler as bringer of justice, peace and joy.