The words tw~n lalhqhsome/nwn in Heb 3,5 allude to the words of Christ at the institution of the Eucharist. This is argued from 1) the contrast between Christ and Moses in Heb 3,1-6 as understood against the background of Num 12,7[LXX]; 2) the thematic use of lale/w in Hebrews; 3) the relevance of Heb 9,20; 4) the place of Heb 3,5 in the structure of Heb 1,1–3,6. All to be understood against a Eucharistic interpretation of Heb 2,12 and Heb 13.
Whilst the scholarly consensus now concurs that Hebrews 13 forms part of the original text, the way in which it interacts with, or relates to, the previous chapters, remains a matter for debate. This paper establishes the relationship in terms of the use of the OT, particularly the way in which Hebrews 13 appropriates narratives from OT figures already discussed in chapters 1–12, thereby (re-)using them for its ethical discourse. Where the bulk of the letter (i.e. Hebrews 1–12) casts the OT protagonists as looking forwards to perfection under Christ, Heb 13,1-8 exhorts its readers to look backwards and learn from the model (or otherwise) behaviour of these same OT figures.